Disclaimer: None of the photos, videos or podcasts belong to me. I do not claim ownership over them.
Along with the boom in internet usage, there has also been an evolution in the forms of media available to us. More and more types of media exclusive to the internet have emerged over the past decade. One of these is the podcast.
A podcast is an audio or video file, usually part of a series, that can be downloaded or streamed from a website to a computer or mobile device. It’s like a radio broadcast, except that it is accessed differently.
Even though podcasts have emerged fairly recently, there are already hundreds of podcasts out there dedicated to The Bard, showing us, time and time again, the importance that people ascribe to the works of William Shakespeare.
For this post, I will only be sharing two podcast channels, the two that interested me the most, but there are so many more out there.
Clear Shakespeare is a series of podcasts by Akiva Fox, that aim to bring Shakespeare’s works closer to its audience. It intends to equip the audience with historical background, meanings and language tricks necessary to give them a clear, honest understanding of The Bard’s plays.
They currently have two sets of podcasts uploaded, one as an introduction and one that talks about Hamlet. The files cannot be uploaded here because they are in mp3 format so here are the links instead:
Introduction [1. What is Clear Shakespeare, and who is it for? 2. The life and times of William Shakespeare (15:23) 3. The afterlife of Shakespeare – how he became SHAKESPEARE (37:14) 4. The accidental barriers to reading Shakespeare, and how we can get past them (46:25)]
In this video, Avika discusses everything we think we know about Shakespeare’s “To Be or Not To Be” speech:
Sheldrake on Shakespeare
Sheldrake on Shakespeare is a website, run by James Sheldrake, that is also home to a series of podcasts dedicated to William Shakespeare
They have several podcasts already uploaded where they talk about The Merchant of Venice, The Taming of the Shrew and so many more. Here is a link to their catalogue:
I was surprised to have found so many websites and channels that were created to produce podcasts for Shakespeare because like I said earlier, it emerged only fairly recently. The audience that I imagine would subscribe to podcasts is not the same group of people that I would think to be fans of Shakespeare. However, the amount of content I found after googling ‘Shakespeare podcasts’ is a testament to the transmediality of Shakespeare; no matter how advanced or evolved technology or media becomes, Shakespeare is sure to follow.
Fox, Akiva. Clear Shakespeare. Web. 18 Dec 2015.
Disclaimer: photos and videos are not mine
By: Demi Babao – BA Journalism – UP, Diliman
Classic plays and sonnets are just a part of what Shakespeare has contributed to the society. He has influenced more than just plots that we encounter reoccurring in today’s literature and films. A lot of our words and phrases in the english vocabulary has actually been introduce d by thee man himself. Expressions such as ‘in a pickle’ or ‘wild goose chase’ has actually been coined by Shakespeare.
Shakespeare is known for the his use of flowery words and this is not just with insults, but with compliments as well. Much of his well quoted lines are words of love uttered by the characters themselves. These words are written a long time ago and yet they are able to reflect the modern dating culture just written in old english format.
Taking a look at these lines lifted from Shakespeare’s works, they’re not that different from the ones in our favorite chick flicks and series, apart of course from the language. This shows how much Shakespeare has also influenced the dating language not just from his time but until our own. A lot of the lines are actually pretty similar in essence to the most popular pick up lines and romance lines used not just in the films or series, but in everyday courtship as well.
Some lines are more appropriate than others. Just like the dating language of today, Shakespeare dating lines can vary from flattering romantic to just plain lewd. They have their rightly timed executions and some that can come off as obsessively scary if said too early in a relationship.
For instance, the line If it be thus to dream, still let me sleep! from Twelfth Night, how many times have we heard this in a song? What about in romantic films? This is one classic cheesy line that lovers tell each other. If this is all a dream, then I never want to wake up.
And then there’s Much Ado About Nothing with I do love nothing in the world so well as you. Have you ever heard someone in love tell their loved one that he or she loves them more than anything in the world? Only about infinite times! Well, it’s not just for lovers. You can hear this from parents, too. Basically, this affectionate expression is used for almost all kinds of love.
They say that love doesn’t only look at appearance. Beauty catches attention, but personality catches the heart. Guess what? Shakespeare wrote that as well. Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind from A Midsummer Night’s Dream. What better to encapsulate the meaning of those words than this pop song?
Other lines are more cultivated for flirting than others, such as Come woo me, woo me, for I am in a holiday humour and like enough to consent from As You Like It. Basically, it is the modern equivalent of “I’m ready, come and get it”.
Kissed someone and want another round? Sin from thy lips? O trespass sweetly urged! Give me my sin again from Romeo and Juliet says “I’m not sure about this and it’s kind of out of my comfort zone, but let’s have that kiss again” and if they say no, a response from the same play goes O, wilt thou leave me so unsatisfied?
Shakespeare had his way with words then AND now.
These lines are found in almost any form of medium; songs, poems, movies and even books from different generations. Some have attempted to apply them in real life. However, the results may vary.
Hamilton, J (2014) 5 Shakespeare Chat Up Lines retrieved on December 11, 2015 from http://www.impactnottingham.com/2014/02/5-shakespearean-chat-up-lines/
Anderson, H. (2014) How Shakespeare Influences the Way We Speak Now retrieved on December 11, 2015 from http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140527-say-what-shakespeares-words
Bruk, D. (2013) Top 10 Shakespearean Pick Up Lines retrieved on December 11, 2015 from http://www.nerve.com/entertainment/top-10-shakespearean-pick-up-lines
by: Narisma, Dyan Kara I.
BA English Studies: Language
University of the Philippines – Diliman
Disclaimer: All videos/pictures used are not mine and belong to their respective owner.
Entry #2: Multimedia Essay
The Bard and the World of Gaming
“BrainBites”: Shakespeare the Genius
Aside from the claims that Shakespeare is a pothead, some parts of this world immortalizes him and deems him “food for the brain” through a board game “Shakespeare Brain Bites” by Green Board Games Company. The mechanics is quite simple. You only need to earn a “brain cell” by filling the brain card –you must answer questions from easy, medium to hard category. This game is best played from 8years and above. The kinds of questions were not revealed online but it is safe to assume that questions are of reference to Shakespearean concepts.
Online Game Hit: “Romeo wherefore art thou”
This Shakespearean referenced online game from agame.com garnered roughly 22million users. The rule is simple; a user will have to play the role of Romeo as he gathers flowers for Juliet. Yes, that’s just the premise of the game —to collects flowers for Juliet in all odds. And it is a hit in UK.
Starfox, Starfox 2 and Starfox 64
There are two characters in this game that resounds to us in Shakespearean plays: one is Titiana of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and Macbeth from Macbeth. These characters are planet names. And yes, it is a geeky game I do not even want to understand. But see how Shakespeare transcends out there to the planets and the universe?
Speare is an interesting literacy game from Canadian Adaptation of Shakespeare Projects site launched in 2007. It markets audiences from 10 years old until 15 years old. It is an online arcade game that promotes literacy in children using the Shakespearean play Romeo and Juliet. Fischlin, Danniel from the site says that, “‘Speare‘s arcade-style format uses quotes from Romeo and Juliet as the content for a puzzle game that coaches players to differentiate quickly between words and in order to develop the ties among Shakespearean vocabulary, homonyms, synonyms, and other facets of basic literacy. This language is decoded for players using audio clips of narrated Shakespearean text (transmissions), as well as word definitions and explanations embedded throughout the game. In addition to kinetic and visual cues, the game uses proprietary technology for transforming game objects into text objects and does so with an advanced audio cue system. What this means is that players who successfully perform a knowledge gathering operation will get both visual and audio cues to confirm their success, thus reinforcing the links between the sound and the sight of the game text in play.”
Fischlin, Daniel. “Speare – The Literacy Arcade Game.” Canadian Shakespeareas. Canadian Adaptations of Shakespeare Project., 2004. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. <http://www.canadianshakespeares.ca/speare.cfm>.
“The Green Board Game Co – Brain Bites Shakespeare.” Alfred and Smith Son. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. <http://www.alfred-smith.co.uk/View.asp?ID=2249&new=promo>.
“9 Surprising Literary References In Videogames.” The Robot’s Voice. Voice Media Group Inc. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. <http://www.therobotsvoice.com/2012/01/9_surprising_literary_references_in_videogames.php>.
by: Narisma, Dyan Kara I.
BA English Studies: Language
University of the Philippines – Diliman
Disclaimer: All videos/pictures used are not mine and belong to their respective owner.
Entry #1: Multimedia Essay
I was lurking around the web looking for something worthy of the immortal Bard, and to me as well, as a mother of a two-year old toddler. Apparently there are Disney writers who delight in using one or two Shakespeare references in adding vigor into their films. Consequently, I chanced upon many of Shakespearean plays allusions in the world of Disney movies.
So, maybe if I feed my daughter with more Disney movie time, she could possibly ace her Shakespeare classes then. Here are few of Disney movies that celebrate the Bard of Avon:
The primary character that we can easily link to Shakespeare is Iago— Iago in Alladin taken from Iago in Othello. “I love the way your little mind works,” says the antagonist Jafar to the secondary antagonist, Iago. “Conscience? I’ve never had one!” says Iago the in that Disney film. How antagonistic is that?
Moreover, a certain scenario from the film makes another reference to Shakespeare, this time from The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. So, Aladdin blurts his first wish to become a prince. And the Genie reads through a magical spell book, he says “Caesar salad” then pops an arm-draped in a toga holding a dagger comes out attempting to stab him. Then the Genie responds with a familiar line “Et tu Brute,” the same line from the terminal Julius Caesar to Brutus in Act III Scene I.
2. POCAHONTAS II: JOURNEY TO THE WORLD
This sequel in 1998 took Shakespearean references where Shakespeare himself appeared in a cameo role. He is seen singing ‘What a Day in London’ with the people in town.
In this photo he is holding a skull (he is a gravedigger in this movie) as he sings, “What is to be or not to be” and went on writing next–probably writing Hamlet.
Another crude reference with a twist in this film’s storyline is that married Pocahontas, now known as Rebecca Rolfe in this movie, landed in England in June 1616. William Shakespeare died in April 1616.
3. THE HUNCHBACK OF NOTRE DAME
So, this is interesting, “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” Disney film is contextualized in the 15th century setting. Yes, way before our Bard even came to life. See how Disney writers love Shakespeare? Anyway, this film is as dark as Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice. We know that the Merchant of Venice tells so much about racism – Christians VS Jews. “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” makes another reference from that theme – Frollo VS the Gypsies.
There’s an line referenced from Merchant of Venice’s Act III Scene I: “If you pick us do we not bleed If you ickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?” says Shylock. The Hunchback of Notre Dame’s take, “Yet, if you kick us, do we not flake? If you moisten us, do we not grow moss?” says Victor from one of the gargoyles to Quasimodo in convincing him to attend the festival.
Walt Disney writers are so fond of immortalizing Shakespearean. The whole team’s a fan of the Bard, ei. They can’t resist adding references from the Bard’s works. Guess one can’t fully be called a writer without acknowledging Shakespeare.
“William Shakespeare (The Bard of Avon).” Disney.wikia.com. Web. 5 Dec. 2015.
It’s not that hard to wrap your mind around that concept. Many intellectuals, even historical figures smoked weed in their own time. Evidence show that even Joan of Arc and Christopher Columbus “blazed the 420”. So does that mean marijuana pushed people to greatness? That’s still up for debate but what we can take from this is that Shakespeare could have been totally baked when he was writing his famous plays such as A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Othello, and Macbeth.
Researchers found traces of cannabis on clay pipes where Shakespeare previously resided (Stratford-Upon-Avon). He also mentioned a “noted weed” in one of his sonnets. If this indeed validates the claim that the greatest dramatist of all time smoked weed, then all stoners can now rejoice because their time is not being wasted contrary to popular belief (I’ll be eagerly waiting for the next genius who will yet again change the world and ask him if he used weed as “genius fuel”).
Here are some videos that discuss the matter:
Now when someone nags you about being the bane of society when you blaze it, tell them you’re on your way on becoming the next Shakespeare.
by: Shara Mariel B. Escorpizo, BA English Studies: Language
University of the Philippines – Diliman
Disclaimer: All videos/pictures used in this essay are not mine unless otherwise stated.
With all the gender-bended things we see on the internet and television these days, it seems as if there is more focus on the gay side of homosexual media. We see famously entertaining drag queens sassy gay friends but we do not really see the lesbian counterparts of it. Sometimes, we do, we come across media that display lesbians in a context but there is not much depth given to them as the gays. Some are not too aware of the existence of drag kings and soft lesbian friends.
In Shakespeare, there have been a number of spin-offs that show gay people acting as characters from a Shakespeare play, adding their own twist to it. However, lesbian Shakespeare adaptations are a bit of a novelty to many. If we Google Drag Shakespeare, a number of colorful results showing drag queens appear. However, it does not go the same with drag kings, which shows how much people find the queens more interesting than the kings.
Nevertheless, lesbian Shakespeare adaptation still sell to a number of audiences and a few play adaptations are still premiered online and on stage. While Shakespeare classics still remain to be one of the most adapted plays in school and professionally, this essay will show outputs from students around the world and professionally made films/plays.
Juliet and Romeo – Juliet and Romeo is a short film explicitly based on the classic Romeo and Juliet. It features young Juliet and Romeo, just like how they were in Act 2, Scene 2 of the play, both played by women. From the title itself, the interchanging of the names Juliet and Romeo show that there is a twist to this adaptation. If I were to say, I think from all the non-Hollywood, non-cinema premiered adaptations of Romeo and Juliet, the Juliet here seems to be the most passionate to pronounce her lines. It is as if the lines were her own, full of trust and young love.
Lost and Delirious (cut scene) – Lost and Delirious is a movie about three teenagers set in a private school. Two of these teenagers are in a quest for love, and in one of the scenes, one of them comes in wearing a fencing outfit with a sword on one hand, then recites lines from Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night.
Desdemona’s Death – Desdemona’s Death, like Juliet and Romeo, is an explicit adaptation of a scene from Shakespeare’s Othello, with characters played by women.
The rest of the video adaptations which will be shown here are student projects from other countries, acting out scenes from Romeo and Juliet, and Othello.
Romina and Juliet – Romina and Juliet is a new-age lesbian adaptation of Romeo and Juliet. Like Juliet and Romeo, this take also explicitly changed its name to a more feminine version, Romina.
<iframe width=”560″ height=”315″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/J4AJqA4zvbI” frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen></iframe
Rosaline and Juliet – Rosaline and Juliet is a more diverse adaptation of Romeo and Juliet. Other lesbian takes on this piece involve Romeo taking a woman’s name, or Romeo being portrayed by a woman. However, in Rosaline and Juliet, it shows Rosaline, who in the classic play, did not get a line at all. In this adaptation, they do not follow the lines from the play but rather, their own lines of a new-age Rosaline and Juliet questioning the conventions of loving a person of the same gender.
Rome and Juliet – Rome and Juliet is a local film adaptation starring locally well-known actresses. Unlike other spin offs of Romeo and Juliet’s romance, Rome and Juliet are women of different fields. Juliet, a pre-school teacher, hires Romeo, a businesswoman to plan her wedding to Marc, a politician. One thing leads to another, and after a few encounters, they wind up having a forbidden affair. Rome and Juliet, compared to other adaptations, is more dramatic and less invested in the details of Romeo and Juliet because in this film adaptation, it is only established that they were having a forbidden love; there was no mention of families in conflict or a mutual suicide.
Other than Youtube stashes of lesbian Shakespeare plays acted out by actresses, there are also live stagings of lesbian Shakespeare. In 2008, Guerilla Theatre, a theater group based in Downtown, Wilmington, North Carolina, produced a modern spin of Romeo and Juliet portrayed by female leads. It was produced as a response to the “ban on same-sex marriages” going on at that time in America. According to Director Richard Davis, this is a new-age adaptation of the play in the sense that it still is based from the same plot, it still uses the same lines, but Romeo and Juliet wear modern clothes and are played by women.
(photos from WMBF News)
Other than Guerilla Theater’s take, another theater from Philadelphia has the same take on Romeo and Juliet; same lines, same characters, but different costumes and actresses.
(photo from Philly.com)
With the coming of the new age and advancements in technology and society, we cannot help but have new innovations in Shakespeare every now and then. In Shakespeare’s time, the treatment of gays and lesbians probably would have been different than the way they are treated today. Nowadays, they can freely state an opinion, point out wrongs, and produce input for society’s change. From boring adaptations of Shakespeare plays come the new age of Shakespeare, all in its lesbian glory.
“Juliet and Romeo.” YouTube. YouTube. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
“Lesbian ‘Romeo and Juliet’ Set in an Implausible, Ideal World.” Philly-archives. 16 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
“Lesbian Spin on Shakespeare Classic.” – WMBFNews.com, Myrtle Beach/Florence SC, Weather. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
“Lost En Delirious: Quote Twelfth Night Shakespeare.” YouTube. YouTube. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
Rome and Juliet. Dir. Connie Macatuno. Perf. Mylene Dizon, Andrea Del Rosario, Rafaell Rosell. Cinema One Originals, 2006. Film.
“Othello — Desdemona’s Death (Short Film).” YouTube. YouTube. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
“Othello Trailer by Natalie Hovee.” YouTube. YouTube. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
“Romina&Juliet.” YouTube. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
“Rosaline and Juliet.” YouTube. YouTube. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
By: Markwin Allison, BA Creative Writing
University of the Philippines – Diliman
Disclaimer: I do not own any of these images or videos.
How young is too young…when it comes to experiencing Shakespeare’s works? If you think about it, children generally wouldn’t be the first group of people that would pop into anyone’s head when ruminating on the audience of Shakespeare (or maybe they do for you?). English majors and Theater actors perhaps, but very seldom children. First off, the language that he uses in his works is dense and difficult to understand even for some adults. Many would consider the content of his work unsuitable to an “impressionable young mind”, with his work depicting or implying scenes of murder, suicide, betrayal, sex (mostly implied though), drug use (if you really read into it) and a lot of many other topics that would make the typical adult go “nope, not giving that to my child yet, thank you very much.”
Generally, a child will encounter Shakespeare (his actual texts, and not a reference of some sort) at around the age of 11 in the classroom, their first plays usually being Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth or A Midsummer Night’s Dream. During his meeting with the Education Secretary Michael Gove in 2014, Gregory Doran, the current Artistic Director of the Royal Shakespeare Company, opined that this age is quite late to be introducing Shakespeare into a child’s life. He believes that by this age they would already be “cynical” about Shakespeare’s works and convinced that his works will be “difficult or boring or academic”. He believes that “You have to let the bug bite” earlier, in order for children to really enjoy Shakespeare in the future.
This idea of “starting them young” is not a unique idea of Mr. Doran, and has been shared by many advocates of Shakespeare’s works since the rise of the concept of Childhood. Believe it or not, Children were not considered a separate category of people until around 17th C – 18th C, with the emergence of the studies from John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In the true fashion of Shakespeare, his works have slipped its way into material for this new audience — children — and like all the other forms of art he has inhabited since, has evolved with it.
The very earliest form of Shakespeare’s works for children, of course would be literature or book based works. One thing we have to remember about children’s literature, and any material made for children in particular, is that they are made for children by adults, and not by children. It is adults who decide what is “appropriate” for children, and that works must not impinge on the “innocence” of children through adult contents. With this, Shakespeare’s plays go through a process of sanitization, and reduced to the skeleton of its story. In addition to this, creators take into consideration the attention span and the level of stimulation needed to keep children interested.
One of the earliest of these written works was Charles and Mary Lamb’s Tales of Shakespeare, which was first published in 1807. In this, Shakespeare’s plays were adapted into stories.
Their stories were retained, though shortened to accommodate a young audiences attention span, and scattered among the stories are little illustrations — each edition drawn by different artists — from memorable scenes from the plays. One thing that Charles and Mary Lamb had done was keep some of the original dialogue from the plays, which is their way of preserving some of the beautiful language that Shakespeare wrote, but they believe cannot be understood by the audience they were writing for.
Another book was E. Nesbit’s The Children’s Shakespeare, that was very similar to Mary and Lamb’s.
The stories are watered down to almost 5 pages each, and there are occasional illustrations attached to some stories.
In the introduction, Nesbit provides a small story that explains her reasons for making the project — to make translate Shakespeare’s works into language that children will understand (again a lot like Charles and Mary Lamb).
A more contemporary book retelling of Shakespeare’s works is Mr William Shakespeare’s Plays by Marcia Willaims.
This is a very colourful and richly illustrated picture book, which tells the story of each play through a succession of panels.
On the edges of the panel there are characters that play audience from the globe and the comment on the play, which can add an interactive element to the reading experience of the children. The plays offered are Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Winter’s Tale, Hamlet, and the Tempest.
An innovative take on the book retelling of Shakespeare is Louis Burdett’s Shakespeare Can Be Fun Too.
Burdett holds Shakespeare workshops for children, and what she does is she uses quotations from the workshops as well as illustration that the children make to tell the story of the play in rhyming couplets.
I think this is an interesting idea as it brings about the concept of children writing for other children, and takes the reigns of the crafting of the story away from the adult.
This “making Shakespeare accessible to children” then moved onto the TV screen, when the medium became the more dominant form of information dissemination. A majority of the Shakespeares seen here are mostly referential: cartoons using his plays’ story archs, borrowing lines, or even mocking shakespeare, the plays themselves or, most especially, his language.
There are a few though that retell his plays faithfully, and make it more enjoyable for children to watch.
One such example is Disney’s animated short of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The setting and story are retained (of course with some trimming as it only runs for around 15 mins), but the language is contemporary, and is simple and humorous for children to enjoy. The characters names are also not retained, the roles being played by iconic disney characters, Minnie Mouse playing Hermia, Micky Mouse as Lysander, Daisy Duck as Helena, Donald Duck as Demetrius, Scrooge McDuck as both Egeus and Theseus and Goofy as Puck. It was first featured on the 11th episode of Mickey Mouse Works, and was featured again in House of Mickey.
Another is Shakespeare: The Animated Tales which was broadcasted by BBC 2 between 1992 to 1994. the plays were also trimmed, and simplified, but stayed true to their respective plays. The story is pushed forward by a narrator, but there are some parts where there are dialogues, and these dialogues have original lines from the plays.
At present, the internet and digital devices have become the most dominant way of sharing and disseminating information, and it is here that the movement to expose children to Shakespeare has moved to. In addition, all of the works that I have mentioned before can now be found in the internet, and can be shared further with other people with just a simple click of a button. Theatre companies have created interactive pages that provide all types of media that is Shakespeare related — things to read, watch and even games to play.
One of these is the Shakespeare’s Globe’s “Playground”, a colourful page where they offer an array of activities for children.
They’ve even created characters, anthropomorphic animals, to aid in making these activities more exciting and stimulating for children.
Folger Shakespeare Library also offers the same, though not as brightly designed as Shakespeare’s Globe. They offer games, and trivia as well as challenges for children to get interested in Shakespeare and his works.
I am sure that there are many more examples of works that also aim to get children interested in The Bard and his wonderful works, and that the entirety of it would need a blog of its own. Though these are enough to show just how much Shakespeare can reach children, and a show of just how accessible Shakespeare is. Who knows what people will come up with next in the pursuit to make children appreciate Shakespeare? Though as of now, it seems there is more than enough out there to make your child the next Bard super fan.
Matthews, Andrew. “Top Shakespeare books for children.” The Guardian. The Guardian News, 22 Apr 2014. Web. 3 Dec 2015
“Playground.” Shakespeare’s Globe. The Shakespeare Globe Trust. n.d. Web. 3 December 2015.
Reynolds, Kimberly. Radical Children’s Literature: Future Visions and Aesthetic Transformations in Juvenile Fiction. Hampshire: PAULGRAVE MACMILLAN, 2007. PDF File.
“Shakespeare for Kids.” Folger Shakespeare Library. Folger Shakespeare Library. n.d. Web. 3 December 2015.
Singh, Anita. “Why Shakespeare Should be Child’s Play.” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited, 9 Feb 2014. Web. 3 Dec 2015